Singapore Thomson Line
The Thompson Line is composed of 23 stations along a length of approximately 30 kilometres.? The current code complying requirement mandates that two (2) fire pumps be provided for each station (one main and one redundant).? One could realize that the design and installation of train stations along the network of metro lines is essentially similar to buildings placed relatively close together.? Whether these structures are aboveground or underground is hydraulically irrelevant.? The relative proximity and the nature contiguous co-location offer a unique opportunity to network the fire suppression systems in such a way strategically placed fire sprinkler system can protect a number of other train stations.
Similarly, it is proposed to use the two adjacent parallel tunnels used primarily for the movement of trains to also place a piping network connecting a number train stations.? This network system is fed by one fire sprinkler system and is able to protect other stations.
On a practical sense, the analysis of water distribution system includes determining quantities of flow and head losses in the various pipe lines, and resulting residual pressures. In any pipe network, the following two simultaneous conditions must be satisfied:
- The algebraic sum of pressure drops around a closed loop must be zero, and
- The flow entering a node must be equal to the flow leaving that node.
Based on these two basic principles, the pipe networks are generally solved by the methods of successive approximation. The widely used method of pipe network analysis is the Hardy-Cross method.
When considering looping of water supplies, there are generally two main objectives to be considered.? The first one is to minimize the cost of the network; and the second is to maximize the reliability of the network of loops.
Unlike most fire sprinkler system pumping systems, the mandated (Code required) fire sprinkler system is designed in such a way that two (2) fire pumps are required.? Hence this Code mandated system seemingly improves the reliability of the of the overall fire sprinkler systems water supply.